I. Groups of Research Methods
There are two main groups of research methods in the social sciences:
- The empirical-analytical groupapproaches the study of social sciences in a similar manner that researchers study the natural sciences. This type of research focuses on objective knowledge, research questions that can be answered yes or no, and operational definitions of variables to be measured. The empirical-analytical group employs deductive reasoning that uses existing theory as a foundation for formulating hypotheses that need to be tested. This approach is focused on explanation.
- The interpretative group of methods is focused on understanding phenomenon in a comprehensive, holistic way. Interpretive methods focus on analytically disclosing the meaning-making practices of human subjects [the why, how, or by what means people do what they do], while showing how those practices arrange so that it can be used to generate observable outcomes. Interpretive methods allow you to recognize your connection to the phenomena under investigation. However, the interpretative group requires careful examination of variables because it focuses more on subjective knowledge.
The introduction to your methodology section should begin by restating the research problem and underlying assumptions underpinning your study. This is followed by situating the methods you will use to gather, analyze, and process information within the overall “tradition” of your field of study and within the particular research design you have chosen to study the problem. If the method you choose lies outside of the tradition of your field [i.e., your review of the literature demonstrates that it is not commonly used], provide a justification for how your choice of methods specifically addresses the research problem in ways that have not been utilized in prior studies.
The remainder of your methodology section should describe the following:
- Decisions made in selecting the data you have analyzed or, in the case of qualitative research, the subjects and research setting you have examined,
- Tools and methods used to identify and collect information, and how you identified relevant variables,
- The ways in which you processed the data and the procedures you used to analyze that data, and
- The specific research tools or strategies that you utilized to study the underlying hypothesis and research questions.
In addition, an effectively written methodology section should:
- Introduce the overall methodological approach for investigating your research problem. Is your study qualitative or quantitative or a combination of both (mixed method)? Are you going to take a special approach, such as action research, or a more neutral stance?
- Indicate how the approach fits the overall research design. Your methods for gathering data should have a clear connection to your research problem. In other words, make sure that your methods will actually address the problem. One of the most common deficiencies found in research papers is that the proposed methodology is not suitable to achieving the stated objective of your paper.
- Describe the specific methods of data collection you are going to use, such as, surveys, interviews, questionnaires, observation, archival research. If you are analyzing existing data, such as a data set or archival documents, describe how it was originally created or gathered and by whom. Also be sure to explain how older data is still relevant to investigating the current research problem.
- Explain how you intend to analyze your results. Will you use statistical analysis? Will you use specific theoretical perspectives to help you analyze a text or explain observed behaviors? Describe how you plan to obtain an accurate assessment of relationships, patterns, trends, distributions, and possible contradictions found in the data.
- Provide background and a rationale for methodologies that are unfamiliar for your readers. Very often in the social sciences, research problems and the methods for investigating them require more explanation/rationale than widely accepted rules governing the natural and physical sciences. Be clear and concise in your explanation.
- Provide a justification for subject selection and sampling procedure. For instance, if you propose to conduct interviews, how do you intend to select the sample population? If you are analyzing texts, which texts have you chosen, and why? If you are using statistics, why is this set of data being used? If other data sources exist, explain why the data you chose is most appropriate to addressing the research problem.
- Describe potential limitations. Are there any practical limitations that could affect your data collection? How will you attempt to control for potential confounding variables and errors? If your methodology may lead to problems you can anticipate, state this openly and show why pursuing this methodology outweighs the risk of these problems cropping up.
NOTE: Once you have written all of the elements of the methods section, subsequent revisions should focus on how to present those elements as clearly and as logically as possibly. The description of how you prepared to study the research problem, how you gathered the data, and the protocol for analyzing the data should be organized chronologically. For clarity, when a large amount of detail must be presented, information should be presented in sub-sections according to topic.
ANOTHER NOTE: If you are conducting a qualitative analysis of a research problem, the methodology section generally requires a more elaborate description of the methods used as well as an explanation of the processes applied to gathering and analyzing of data than is generally required for studies using quantitative methods. Because you are the primary instrument for generating the data, the process for collecting that data has a significantly greater impact on producing the findings. Therefore, qualitative research requires a more detailed description of the methods used.
III. Problems to Avoid
The methodology section of your paper should be thorough but to the point. Do not provide any background information that doesn’t directly help the reader to understand why a particular method was chosen, how the data was gathered or obtained, and how it was analyzed.
Unnecessary Explanation of Basic Procedures
Remember that you are not writing a how-to guide about a particular method. You should make the assumption that readers possess a basic understanding of how to investigate the research problem on their own and, therefore, you do not have to go into great detail about specific methodological procedures. The focus should be on how you applied a method, not on the mechanics of doing a method. An exception to this rule is if you select an unconventional methodological approach; if this is the case, be sure to explain why this approach was chosen and how it enhances the overall process of discovery.
It is almost a given that you will encounter problems when collecting or generating your data, or, gaps will exist in existing data or archival materials. Do not ignore these problems or pretend they did not occur. Often, documenting how you overcame obstacles can form an interesting part of the methodology. It demonstrates to the reader that you can provide a cogent rationale for the decisions you made to minimize the impact of any problems that arose.
Just as the literature review section of your paper provides an overview of sources you have examined while researching a particular topic, the methodology section should cite any sources that informed your choice and application of a particular method [i.e., the choice of a survey should include any citations to the works you used to help construct the survey].
It’s More than Sources of Information!
A description of a research study's method should not be confused with a description of the sources of information. Such a list of sources is useful in and of itself, especially if it is accompanied by an explanation about the selection and use of the sources. The description of the project's methodology complements a list of sources in that it sets forth the organization and interpretation of information emanating from those sources.
Azevedo, L.F. et al. "How to Write a Scientific Paper: Writing the Methods Section." Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia 17 (2011): 232-238; Blair Lorrie. “Choosing a Methodology.” In Writing a Graduate Thesis or Dissertation, Teaching Writing Series. (Rotterdam: Sense Publishers 2016), pp. 49-72; Butin, Dan W. The Education Dissertation A Guide for Practitioner Scholars. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2010; Carter, Susan. Structuring Your Research Thesis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012; Kallet, Richard H. “How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper.” Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004):1229-1232; Lunenburg, Frederick C. Writing a Successful Thesis or Dissertation: Tips and Strategies for Students in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2008. Methods Section. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Rudestam, Kjell Erik and Rae R. Newton. “The Method Chapter: Describing Your Research Plan.” In Surviving Your Dissertation: A Comprehensive Guide to Content and Process. (Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications, 2015), pp. 87-115; What is Interpretive Research. Institute of Public and International Affairs, University of Utah; Writing the Experimental Report: Methods, Results, and Discussion. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Methods and Materials. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College.
Design of Experiments > Survey Sampling
What is Survey Sampling?
Survey sampling is selecting members from a target population to be in a sample for a sample survey. Usually the survey is some type of questionnaire (i.e. in-person, phone or internet survey).
Census taking in The Netherlands, c. 1925.
The three parts of survey sampling are:
- Sample selection.
- Data Collection: collecting the data through mail, phone, or in-person.
- Estimation: using estimators from the collected data to make inferences about the population as a whole.
Survey Sampling: Sample Selection
Sample selection for survey samples fall into two main types:
- Probability-based samples, which chooses members based on a known probability. This uses random selection methods like simple random sampling or systematic sampling. For a list of probability-based sampling methods, see this article: Probability Sampling.
- Non-probability samples, where the probability of choosing a member cannot be calculated. Instead, non-random selection methods use the researcher’s judgment, proximity of subjects, or other non-random factor. For a list of non-probability sampling methods, see this article: Non-Probability Sampling.
Usually, probability-based samples have preference over non-probability samples. Most larger organizations and institutions publish guidelines for the types of survey sampling permitted. For example, this Whitehouse document titled “Lists of Standards for Statistical Surveys states that:
Agencies must develop a survey design…selecting samples using generally accepted statistical methods (e.g., probabilistic methods that can provide estimates of sampling error). You should justify any use of nonprobability sampling methods (e.g., cut-off or model-based samples) and you should also measure estimation error.
The “estimation error” usually refers to being able to calculate a confidence interval and margin of error.
The Kish Grid is one way to select survey participants. It assigns equal probabilities to each person and so avoids selection bias.
What is Survey Research?
Survey research is a broad term that involves collecting sample data from peoples’ responses to questions. Questions can range from a short, two-question feedback form to an in-depth personal interview about a specific topic. Three techniques commonly used:
- Questionnaires: written questions (on paper or on a computer), which can include open ended questions, closed ended questions, multiple choice questions, or questions that require the respondent to rate something on a scale (i.e. 1 to 10).
- Interviews: oral questions (in person or via a phone or computer) — closed-ended or open-ended, multiple choice or on a scale.
- Surveys: brief interviews about a specific topic. Like questionnaires and interviews, these can also come in a variety of question formats.
Advantages of Survey Research:
- It is an effective tool for collecting data from a wide variety of people about a wide variety of topics.
- It’s versatile and can provide a deeper understanding of just about any issue.
- It can be both time and cost efficient. Many questions are asked without increasing cost or time factors. If well-designed, survey research can also be relatively low cost.
- It is sometimes the only available tool for obtaining data from a large population.
Disadvantages of Survey Research
- Response rates can be very low, especially for mail surveys.
- Misleading or difficult to understand questions can taint results. Language barriers can also cause issues with responses.
- Personal interviews can be expensive, especially if the sample is spread across a wide geographic area. Cost can also be a factor with the postage involved in sending out mass-mail surveys. Telephone surveys can also quickly become cost prohibitive when factoring in the cost of training staff and payroll.
Surveys have been in popular use for decades. The odds are, if you want to find out something about a population, someone has performed survey research for that topic before you. Building on someone else’s survey research design can help you avoid many of the pitfalls of survey research, like irrelevant questions or omitting questions that are crucial to understanding the topic.
Reference: J. Michael Brick. The Future of Survey Sampling. Public Opinion Quarterly. Available online here.------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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