Presentation on theme: "Learning Objectives Identify the goal of the firm."— Presentation transcript:
0 An Introduction to the Foundations of Financial Management
Chapter 1An Introduction to the Foundations of Financial Management
1 Learning Objectives Identify the goal of the firm.
Understand the basic principles of finance, their importance, and the importance of ethics and trust.Describe the role of finance in business.Distinguish between the different legal forms of business.Explain what has led to the era of the multinational corporation.1
2 The goal of the firm
3 The Goal of the FirmThe goal of the firm is to create value for the firm’s legal owners (that is, its shareholders). Thus the goal of the firm is to “maximize shareholder wealth” by maximizing the price of the existing common stock.Good financial decisions will increase stock price and poor financial decisions will lead to a decline in stock price.3
4 Five PRINCIPLES THAT FORM THE FOUNDATIONS OF FINANCE
5 Principle 1: Cash Flow Is What Matters
Accounting profits are not equal to cash flows. It is possible for a firm to generate accounting profits but not have cash or to generate cash flows but not report accounting profits in the books.Cash flow, and not profits, drive the value of a business.We must determine incremental or marginal cash flows when making financial decisions.Incremental cash flow is the difference between the projected cash flows if the project is selected, versus what they will be, if the project is not selected.
6 Principle 2: Money Has a Time Value
A dollar received today is worth more than a dollar received in the future.Since we can earn interest on money received today, it is better to receive money sooner rather than later.
7 Principle 2: Money Has a Time Value (cont.)
Opportunity Cost – It is the cost of making a choice in terms of next best alternative that must be foregone.Example: By lending money to your friend at zero percent interest, there is an opportunity cost of 1% that could potentially be earned by depositing the money in a savings account in a bank.
8 Principle 3: Risk Requires a Reward
Investors will not take on additional risk unless they expect to be compensated with additional reward or return.Investors expect to be compensated for “delaying consumption” and “taking on risk.”Thus, investors expect a return when they deposit their savings in a bank (ex. delayed consumption) and they expect to earn a relatively higher rate of return on stocks compared to a bank savings account (ex. taking on risk).
9 Figure 1-1
10 Principle 4: Market Prices Are Generally Right
In an efficient market, the market prices of all traded assets (such as stocks and bonds) fully reflect all available information at any instant in time.Thus stock prices are a useful indicator of the value of the firm. Price changes reflect changes in expected future cash flows. Good decisions will tend to increase in stock price and vice versa.Note there are inefficiencies in the market that may distort the market prices from value of assets. Such inefficiencies are often caused by behavioral biases.
11 Principle 5: Conflicts of Interest Cause Agency Problems
The separation of management and the ownership of the firm creates an agency problem. Managers may make decisions that are not consistent with the goal of maximizing shareholder wealth.Agency conflict is reduced through monitoring (ex. annual reports), compensation schemes (ex. stock options), and market mechanisms (ex. takeovers)
12 Discussion: The Current Global Financial Crisis
What lead to the global financial crisis?What do we mean by subprime loans?How are mortgages securitized?How can the financial crisis be explained by using the five principles of finance?Review the text
13 Ethics & Trust in Business
Ethical behavior is doing the right thing! … but what is the right thing?Ethical dilemma -- Each person has his or her own set of values, which forms the basis for personal judgments about what is the right thing.Sound ethical standards are important for business and personal success. Unethical decisions can destroy shareholder wealth (ex. Enron scandal).
14 The role of finance in business
15 The Role of Finance in Business
Three basic issues addressed by the study of finance:What long-term investments should the firm undertake? (Capital budgeting decision)How should the firm raise money to fund these investments? (Capital structure decision)How to manage cash flows arising from day-to-day operations? (Working capital decision)
16 The Role of Finance in Business (cont.)
Knowledge of financial tools is relevant for decision making in all areas of business (be it marketing, production etc.) and also in managing personal finances.Decisions involve an element of time and uncertainty … financial tools help adjust for time and risk.Decisions taken in business should be financially viable … financial tools help determine the financial viability of decisions.
17 The Role of the Financial Manager
18 The legal forms of business organization
19 The Legal Forms of Business Organization
20 Sole Proprietorship Business owned by an individual
Owner maintains title to assets and profitsUnlimited liabilityTermination occurs on owner’s death or by the owner’s choice20
21 Partnership Two or more persons come together as co-owners
General Partnership: All partners are fully responsible for liabilities incurred by the partnership.Limited Partnerships: One or more partners can have limited liability, restricted to the amount of capital invested in the partnership. There must be at least one general partner with unlimited liability. Limited partners cannot participate in the management of the business and their names cannot appear in the name of the firm.21
22 Corporation Legally functions separate and apart from its owners
Corporation can sue, be sued, purchase, sell, and own propertyOwners (shareholders) dictate direction and policies of the corporation, oftentimes through elected board of directors.Shareholder’s liability is restricted to amount of investment in company.Life of corporation does not depend on the owners … corporation continues to be run by managers after transfer of ownership through sale or inheritance.22
23 The Trade-offs: Corporate Form
Benefits: Limited liability, easy to transfer ownership, easier to raise capital, unlimited life (unless the firm goes through corporate restructuring such as mergers and bankruptcies).Drawbacks: No secrecy of information, maybe delays in decision making, greater regulation, double taxation.23
24 Double Taxation Example
Assume earnings before tax = $1,000Federal 25% = $250After tax income available for distribution to shareholders = $750Compute the taxes if the company chooses to distribute the entire after-tax profits to shareholders as dividends.
25 Double Taxation Example
If corporation distributes profits as dividends to shareholders, shareholders will be taxed again.Assuming dividends are 15%Dividend tax = 15% of $750 = $112.50==>Total tax = = $362.5 or 36.25%
26 Hybrid Organizations: S-Corporation and Limited Liability Companies (LLCs)
S-Type CorporationsBenefitsLimited liabilityTaxed as partnership (no double taxation like corporations)LimitationsOwners must be people so cannot be used for a joint ventures between two corporations26
27 Limited Liability Companies (LLC)
Hybrid Organizations: S-Corporation and Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) (cont.)Limited Liability Companies (LLC)BenefitsLimited liabilityTaxed like a partnershipLimitationsQualifications vary from state to stateCannot appear like a corporation otherwise it will be taxed like one27
28 Finance and the Multinational Firm: The New Role
29 Finance and The Multinational Firm: The New Role
U.S. firms are looking to international expansion to discover profits. For example, Coca-Cola earns over 80% of its profits from overseas sales.In addition to US firms going abroad, we have also witnessed many foreign firms making their mark in the United States. For example, domination of auto industry by Honda, Toyota, and Nissan.29
30 Why Do Companies Go Abroad?
To increase revenuesTo reduce expenses (land, labor, capital, raw material, taxes)To lower governmental regulation standards (ex. environmental, labor)To increase global exposure
31 Risks/Challenges of Going Abroad
Country risk (changes in government regulations, unstable government, economic changes in foreign country)Currency risk (fluctuations in exchange rates)Cultural risk (differences in language, traditions, ethical standards, etc.)
32 Review: Key Terms Agency problem Capital budgeting
Capital structure decisionCorporationEfficient marketFinancial marketsGeneral partnershipIncremental cash flowLimited partnershipLimited Liability Company (LLC)PartnershipOpportunity costSole proprietorshipS-corporationWorking capital management
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?