1. Vojdani A, Thrasher JD. Cellular and humoral immune abnormalities in Gulf War veterans. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:840–6.[PMC free article][PubMed]
2. McKeown-Eyssen G, Baines C, Cole DE, Riley N, Tyndale RF, et al. Case-control study of genotypes in multiple chemical sensitivity: CYP2D6, NAT1, NAT2, PON1, PON2 and MTHFR. Int J Epidemiol. 2004;33:971–8.[PubMed]
3. Da Costa JM. On irritable heart: a clinical study of a form of functional cardiac disorder and its consequences. Am J Med Sci. 1871;61:17–52.
4. Myers ABR. On the Etiology and Prevalence of Diseases of the Heart among. Soldiers. London: John Churchill & Sons; 1870.
5. American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1994.
6. First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, et al. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1997.
7. Lyons JA, Keane TM. Keane PTSD scale: MMPI and MMPI-2 update. J Traum Stress. 1992;5:111–7.
8. Davidson JRT, Book SW, Colket JT, Tupler LA, Roth S, David D, et al. Assessment of a new self-rating scale for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychol Med. 1997;27:153–60.[PubMed]
9. Kubany ES, Leisen MB, Kaplan AS, Kelly MP. Validation of a brief measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: the Distressing Event Questionnaire (DEQ) Psychol Assess. 2000;12:197–209.[PubMed]
10. Weiss DS, Marmar CR. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In: Wilson J, Keane TM, editors. Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. NY: Guilford; 1996. pp. 399–411.
11. Briere J. Psychometric review of the trauma symptom checklist-40. In: Stamm BH, editor. Measurement of Stress, Trauma, and Adaptation. Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press; 1996.
12. Blanchard EB, Jones-Alexander J, Buckley TC, Forneris CA. Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist (PCL) Behav Res Therap. 1996;34:669–73.[PubMed]
13. Norris FH, Perilla JL. The revised civilian Mississippi scale for PTSD: reliability, validity, and cross-language stability. J Traum Stress. 1996;9:285–98.[PubMed]
14. Foa E, Cashman L, Jaycox L, Perry K. The validation of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: the posttraumatic diagnostic scale. Psychol Assess. 1997;9:445–51.
15. King LA, King DW, Leskin GA, Foy DW. The Los Angeles symptom checklist: a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychol Assess. 1995;2:1–17.
16. Blake DD, Wheathers FW, Nagy LM, Kaloupeu DG, Klaumizer G, Charney DS, et al. A clinician rating scale for assessing current and lifetime PTSD: the CAPS. Behav Ther. 1990;13:187–8.
17. Bremmer JD, Vermetten E, Vythilingam M, Afzal N, Schmahl C, Elzinga B, et al. Neural correlates of the classic color and emotional Stroop in women-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:612–20.[PubMed]
18. Bremmer JD, Soufer R, McCarthy G, Delaney R, Staib LH, Duncan JS, et al. Gender differences in cognitive and neural correlates of remembrance of emotional words. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2001;35:55–87.[PubMed]
19. Shin LM, Whalen PJ, Pitman RK, Bush G, Macklin ML, Lasko NB. An fMRI study of anterior cingulate function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiat. 2001;50:932–42.[PubMed]
20. Keane TM, Caddell JM, Taylor KL. Mississippi scale for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: three studies in reliability and validity. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56:85–90.[PubMed]
21. Keane T, Wolf J, Taylor KL. Posttraumatic stress disorder: evidence for diagnostic validity and methods of psychological assessment. J Clin Psychol. 1987;43:32–43.[PubMed]
22. Kulka RA, Schlenger WE, Fairbank JA, Hough RL, Jordan CB, Marmar CR, et al. Trauma and the Vietnam war generation: Report of findings from the National Veterans Readjustment Study. NY: Brunner/Mazel; 1990.
23. Keane T, Fairbank J, Caddell J, Zimering R, Taylor K, Mora C. Clinical evaluation of a measure to assess combat exposure. Psychol Assess. 1989;1:53–5.
24. Spitzer RL, Williams JB. Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-III-R- Non-Patient Version Modified for the Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. NY: New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research; 1987.
25. Beals J, Manson SM, Shore JH, Friedman M, Ashcraft M, Fairbank JA, et al. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among American Indian Vietnam veterans: disparities and context. J Trauma Stress. 2002;15:89–97.[PubMed]
26. Monnelly EP, Ciraulo DA, Knapp C, Keane T. Low-dose risperidone as adjunctive therapy for irritable aggression in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;23:193–6.[PubMed]
27. Barrett DH, Doebbeling CC, Schwartz DA, Voelker MD, Falter KH, Woolson RF, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and self-reported physical health status among US Military personnel serving during the Gulf War period: a population-based study. Psychosomatics. 2002;43:195–205.[PubMed]
28. Conrad KJ, Wright BD, McKnight P, McFall M, Fontana A, Rosenheck R. Comparing traditional and Rasch analyses of the Mississippi PTSD scale: revealing limitations of reverse-scored items. J Appl Meas. 2004;5:15–30.[PubMed]
29. Elhai JD, Frueh BC, Davis JL, Jacobs GA, Hamner MB. Clinical presentations in combat veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychol. 2003;59:385–97.[PubMed]
30. Trent CR, Jr, Rushlau MG, Munley PH, Bloem W, Driesenga S. An ethnocultural study of posttraumatic stress disorder in African-American and white American Vietnam War veterans. Psychol Rep. 2000;87:585–9.[PubMed]
31. Beckham JC, Braxton LE, Kudler HS, Feldman ME, Lytle BL, Palmer S. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory profiles of Vietnam combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and their children. J Clin Psychol. 1997;53:847–52.[PubMed]
32. Betemps EJ, Smith RM, Baker DG, Rounds-Kugler BA. Measurement precision of the clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS): a RASCH model analysis. J Appl Meas. 2003;4:59–69.[PubMed]
33. Engdahl B, Eberly R. Assessing PTSD among veterans exposed to war trauma 40–50 years ago. NCP Clinical Quarterly. 1994;4:13–14.
34. Hovens JE, Falger PR, Op den Velde W, Schouten EG, de Groen JH, Van Duijn H. Occurrence of current post traumatic stress disorder among Dutch World War II resistance veterans according to the SCID. J Anxiety Dis. 1992;6:147–57.
35. Chiappelli F, Prolo P, Cajulis E, Harper S, Sunga E, Concepcion E. Consciousness, emotional self-regulation, and the psychosomatic network: relevance to oral biology and medicine. In: Beauregard M, editor. Consciousness, Emotional Self-regulation and the Brain, Advances in Consciousness Research. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004a. pp. 253–74.
36. Chiappelli F, Abanomy A, Hodgson D, Mazey KA, Messadi DV, Mito RS, Nishimura I, Spigleman I. Clinical, experimental and translational psychoneuroimmunology research models in oral biology and medicine. In: Ader R, Falter D, Cohen R., editors. Psychoneuroimmunology, III. Academic Press; 2001. pp. 645–70.
37. Chiappelli F, Cajulis OS. Psychobiological views on ‘stress-related oral ulcers’ Quintess Intern. 2004;35:223–7.[PubMed]
38. Sterling P, Eyer J. Allostasis: a new paradigm to explain arousal pathology. In: Fisher S, Reason J, editors. Handbook of Life Stress, Cognition, and Health. NY: Wiley; 1988.
39. McEwen B, Wingfield JC. The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine. Hormones Behav. 2003;43:2–15.[PubMed]
40. Schulkin J. Allostasis: a neural behavioral perspective. Hormones Behav. 2003;43:21–7.[PubMed]
41. Foa E, Keane T, Friedman M. Effective Treatments for PTSD. NY: The Guilford Press; 2000.
42. Bradley R, Greene J, Russ E, Dutra L, Westen D. A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. Am J Pschiatr. 2005;162:214–27.[PubMed]
43. Pivac N, Kozaric-Kovacic D, Muck-Seler D. Olanzapine versus fluphenacine in an open trial in patients with psychotic combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacol. 2004;175:451–6.[PubMed]
44. Kozaric-Kovacic D, Kocijan-Hercigonja D, Grubisic-Ilic M. Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in soldiers with combat experience. Croat Med J. 2001;42:165–70.[PubMed]
45. Kozaric-Kovacic D, Kocijan-Hercigonja D. Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbidity. Mil Med. 2001;166:78–83.
46. Hamner MB, Frueh C, Ulmer HG, Arana GW. Psychotic features and illness severity in combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiat. 1999;45:846–52.[PubMed]
47. Bisson JI, McFarlane AC, Rose S. Psychological debriefing. In: Foa E, et al., editors. Effective Treatments for PTSD. The Guilford Press; 2000. pp. 39–59.
48. Deahl M, Gillham A, Thomas J, Searle M, Srinivasan M. Psychological sequelae following the Gulf war: factors associated with subsequent morbidity and the effectiveness of psychological debriefing. Br J Psychiatry. 1994;165:60–5.[PubMed]
49. Turner S, Beidel D, Frueh B. Multicomponent behavioral treatment for chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: trauma management therapy. Behavioral Mod. 2005;29:39–69.[PubMed]
50. Sherman J. Effects of psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD: a meta analysis of controlled clinical trials. J Trauma Stress. 1998;11:413–35.[PubMed]
51. Van Etten ML, Taylor S. Comparative efficacy of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta analysis. Clin Psychol Psychother. 1998;5:126–44.
52. Hembree EA, Foa EB. Posttraumatic stress disorder: psychological factors and psychosocial interventions. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61S:33–9.[PubMed]
53. Davidson P, Parker K. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): a meta analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69:305–16.[PubMed]
54. Foa E, Rothbaum B, Furr J. Augmenting exposure therapy with other CBT procedures. Psychiatr Ann. 2003;33:47–53.
55. Pitman R, Orr S, Altman B, Longpre R, Poire R, Macklin M, et al. Emotional processing and outcome of imaginal flooding therapy in Vietnam veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Compr Psychiat. 1996;37:409–18.[PubMed]
56. Frueh BC, Turner SM, Beidel DC, Mirabella RF, Janes WJ. Trauma management therapy: a preliminary evaluation of a multicomponent behavioral treatment for chronic combat-related PTSD. Behav Res Ther. 1996;34:533–43.[PubMed]
57. Boudewyns G, Hyer L. Physiological response to combat memories and preliminary treatment outcome in Vietnam veterans: PTSD patients treated with direct therapeutic exposure. Behav Ther. 1990;21:63–87.
58. Cooper N, Clum G. Imaginal flooding as a supplementary treatment for PTSD in combat veterans: a controlled study. Beh Ther. 1989;3:381–91.
59. Hamner M, Robert S, Frueh B. Treatment resistant posttraumatic stress disorder: strategies for intervention. CNS Spectr. 2004;9:740–52.[PubMed]
60. Stein DJ, Zungu-Dirwayi N, van Der Linden GJ, Seedat S. Pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;4:CD002795.[PubMed]
61. Brady K, Pearlstein T, Asnis G, Baker D, Rothbaum B, Sikes C, et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of sertraline treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. J Am Med Assoc. 2000;283:1837–44.[PubMed]
62. Davidson J, Landburg P, Pearlstein T, Weisler R, Sikes C, Farfel G. Double-blind comparison of sertraline and placebo in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Abstracts of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 36th Annual Meeting; San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1997.
63. Davidson J, Malik M, Sutherland S. Response characteristics to antidepressants and placebo in post-traumatic stress disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1996;12:291–6.[PubMed]
64. Chung M, Min K, Jun Y, Kim S, Kim W, Jun E. Efficacy and tolerability of mirtazapine and sertraline in Korean veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized open label trial. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004;19:489–94.[PubMed]
65. Chiappelli F, Prolo P, Negoatis N, Lee A, Milkus V, Bedair D, et al. Tools and methods for evidence-based research in dental practice: preparing the future. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2004b;4:16–23.
66. Rose S, Bisson J, Wessely S. A systematic review of single-session psychological interventions (‘debriefing’) following trauma. Psychother Psychosom. 2003;72:171–5.[PubMed]
67. Wessely S, Rose S, Bisson J. Brief psychological interventions (‘debriefing’) for trauma-related symptoms and the prevention of post traumatic stress disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;3:CD000560.[PubMed]
68. Suzanna RO, Jonathan BI, Simon WE. Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;2:CD000560.[PubMed]
69. Albucher RC, Liberzon I. Psychopharmacological treatment in PTSD: a critical review. J Psychiatr Res. 2002;36:355–67.[PubMed]
70. Levine EG, Eckhardt J, Targ E. Change in post-traumatic stress symptoms following psychosocial treatment for breast cancer. Psychooncol. 2005 Jan 13 [Epub] [PubMed]
71. McPherson F, Schwenka MA. Use of complementary and alternative therapies among active duty soldiers, military retirees, and family members at a military hospital. Mil Med. 2004;169:354–7.[PubMed]
72. Westermeyer J, Canive J, Thuras P, Chesness D, Thompson J. Perceived barriers to VA mental health care among Upper Midwest American Indian veterans: description and associations. Med Care. 2002;40S:I62–71.[PubMed]
73. Sommers E, Porter K, DeGurski S. Providers of complementary and alternative health services in Boston respond to September 11. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1597–8.[
A List Of Winning Term Paper Topics On PTSD To Choose From
The subject of PTSD for writing a term paper:
PTSD stands for post traumatic stress disorder. It is a very common subject for research by the students of psychology. Psychology and other medical related subjects associated with PTSD are very popular among students because of their scope in the practical field. There are a variety odd topics and things they can research about. The best thing about this subject is that it is interesting to study and that is your main plus point. You can only do well in this subject if you have developed an interest. If interest is not there, then unfortunately your paper will look very rigid and substandard. This is something you really cannot afford at such high level of your academic career and it is almost the end of your studies. You can get a good job based on the results of your research paper. The first question that most of the interviewers ask in the job interview for such prospective job is about their research paper. All questions revolve around your final year project. So, you can well imagine the importance of such tasks and you should work hard to get things right for you. Topic selection is most critical thing to consider. It has to be the best topic which is unique and have a lot of scope for performing the relevant research.
Top PTSD term paper topics:
The following is the list of the top PTSD paper topics to be considered by the research students writing their paper:
- The top psychological strategies to deal with Post traumatic stress disorder?
- Is the government doing good enough to help people with PTSD?
- Are there any medical conditions for the effective treatment of PTSD?
- How can your poor mental health affect your productivity at work?
- What are the best strategies to come out of post traumatic stress?
- The best approach in dealing with the terrible flashbacks of the traumatic incident.
- Why most of the people dealing with PTSD are alcoholic as well?
- What should be the responsibilities of the government to help veterans with PTSD?
- Why people have different experiences by witnessing the same traumatic incidence?
- Should a person suffering from PTSD taken to a different place or city where the traumatic incident occurred?